Different types of washing machine
September 18, 2018
Knitting Machine
September 25, 2018

Historical Background of knitting technology:

1589: William Lee, inventor of the mechanical stitch formation tools.

1758: Jedeish strutt, inventor of double knit technique,

1798: Monsier Decroix, Circular knitting frame.

1805: Josheph Marie Jacquard, Jacquard mechanism.

1847: Mathew Townsend, inventor of latch needle.

1850: Circular knitting machine

1852: Needle development

1878: Circular knitting machine plain rib.

1910: Interlock fabric.

1918: Double headed or hook latch needle.

1920: Pattern wheel, punch tape etc.

Defecation of Knitting

The process in which fabrics are produces by set of connected loops from a series of yarns in weft or warp direction is called knitting.

When fabric is produced by this method in weft direction then it is called weft knitting & in warp direction then it is called warp knitting. The basic element of a knitted fabric structure is the loop intermeshed with the loops adjacent to it on both sides & above & below it.

Knitted fabrics are mainly two types:

a)Weft knitted fabric.

b)Warp knitted fabric.

Weft knitted fabric

In weft knitted structure a horizontal row of loops can be made using one thread & the thread runs in horizontal direction.

Warp knitted fabric

In a warp knitted structure each loop in horizontal direction is made from a different thread & the number of threads used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the number of loops in horizontal row.


Some important Terms of knitting technology.


The number of horizontal rows of loop of knitted fabrics is called course. In a weft knitted fabric a course is composed of yarn from a single supply termed a course length .


The number of vertical columns of loop of knitted fabrics is called wale. In warp knitting a wale can be produced from the same yarn.

Needle Gauge / Machine Gauge

The pitch or distance between one needle to

another needle is measured by gauge.

a)In case of weft knitting machine, number of needle per inch is called gauge.

b)In case of raschel warp knitting machine, number of needle per two inch is called gauge.

Needle pitch

In a needle bed the distance between two needles

centre point is called needle pitch. Needle pitch = 1/ needle gauge.

Needle loop

The needle loop is the simplest unit of knitted structure. It consists of a head & two side limbs or legs.

Sinker loop

The sinker loop is the piece of yarn which joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next. Sinker loops are automatically produced by the action of the latch needle.

Head or top arc

The upper curved portion of the knitted loop is called head or top arc.

Bottom arc

The lower curved portion of the knitted loop is called bottom arc.

Arm or side limbs or leg

The lateral parts of the knitted loop that connect top arc to the half bottom arc is called arm or side limbs or legs.

The knitted Stitch

The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing & usually consists of three or more intermeshed loops.

The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop.

The loop length / stitch length

Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which includes one needle loop & half the length of sinker loop between that needle loop the adjacent needle loops on either side of it.

Types of loop in knitting

  1. Face loop
  2. Back loop

The face loop stitch

The side of the stitch shows the new loop coming through towards the viewers as it passes over & covers the head of the old loop.

The back loop stitch

This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop side & shows the new loop meshing away from the viewers as it passes under the head of the old loop.

Stitch density

The term stitch density is frequently used in knitting instead of a linear measurement of courses Wales. It is the total number of needle loops in a square area measurement such as a square inch or square centimeter.

It is obtained by multiplying the number of courses and wales per inch together.

Stitch density = Wales per inch (wpi) x Courses per inch (cpi).


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